排气歧管试验案例 Manifold Testing Example


康明斯的工程师设计和测试发动机,以承受从军事部署到重型工业现场等各种现实环境考验。 康明斯工程师想要确切了解他们的零件在热负荷和机械负荷的组合下如何变形。 这意味着他们需要在发动机运行时进行测试......这会很热!

The engineers at Cummins design and test their engines to withstand real-world conditions, ranging from military deployments to heavy-duty industrial sites. Cummins engineers want to know exactly how their parts are deforming under the combination of thermal and mechanical loads. This means they have the need to perform their tests with the engines running… hot!


图示Figure 1. 发动机排气歧管照片Photograph of engine manifold.


由于在这些运行工况下产生的复杂应变场,常规应变计已不能满足康明斯的要求。 而由于不确定的边界条件和加载的复杂性,FEA模拟也受到限制。 利用VIC-3D™系统,康明斯工程师能够获得详细的三维应变测量结果。 这些测量是在发动机运转时在实际负载条件下进行的,而VIC-3D™系统易于安装,对测量小部件和大型组件同样适用。 使用DIC对热样件进行成像时必须小心,因为热浪会导致数据结果产生严重偏差。 然而,解决这种潜在的偏差的一个简单方法就是利用风扇来搅动和混合容易集中的冷、热空气。

Because of the complex strain fields produced under these conditions, conventional strain gages cannot satisfy Cummins’ requirements. FEA simulations are also limited, due to the uncertain boundary conditions and complexity of the loading. With the VIC-3D™ System, Cummins engineers were able to obtain detailed three-dimensional strain measurements. These measurements are made under real loading conditions while the engine is running. In addition, the VIC-3D™ System is easy to set up and can measure both small parts and large assemblies. Care must be taken when imaging hot specimens with DIC, because heat waves can severely bias data. However, a simple solution to this potential bias is to utilize a fan to move and mix the hot and cool air, which is easily integrated.

康明斯高级研究工程师 Paul Gloeckner 解释了 VIC-3D 系统的实用性:“这一工具允许我们做以前不可能做到的测量。 它还使我们大大减少这些测试所需的时间。”

Paul Gloeckner, senior research engineer at Cummins, explains the usefulness of the VIC-3D™ System as follows: “This tool allows us to make measurements that were previously not possible. It has also allowed us to considerably reduce the time required for these tests.”


图示Figure 2. VIC-3D 排气歧管应变数据strain data of manifold.

CSI公司现在支持红外温度摄像机同步,它可以与任何准静态VIC-3D系统集成。 现在可以标定红外摄像机的温度数据并与DIC系统同步,从而生成非常强大和更丰富的数据。

Correlated Solutions now supports select IR cameras, which can be integrated with any quasi-static VIC-3D system. Temperature data from IR cameras can now be calibrated and synchronized with the DIC system, producing very robust and more informative data.

* 数据由康明斯发动机提供 Data Courtesy of Cummins




View the VIC-3D page for more information about this technology.

Find out more about our IR system.

Download the VIC-3D flyer.

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刹车盘的工作变形测量 Measuring Operational Deflection Shapes of a Brake Rotor



Automobiles are subject to many forces during operation.  Vibrations from the engine or the road-surface transmit through the vehicle’s chassis and suspension to the most essential mechanical component of the vehicle, the brake system. In this example, a 14” diameter brake disc from a heavy-duty truck was excited using a small hammer to measure the vibration shapes of the rotor.

使用VIC-3D™HS FFT振动分析系统可轻松识别和测量三维工作变形,即使频率高达约2000Hz,而振幅小至40纳米的测量。三阶固有频率的振型可以很容易地在120, 932和2087Hz处被识别。下图中软件的截屏(左)显示平均离面振幅A(w)与对应的频率函数的图形。而932Hz下的工作变形如右下方生成的动画。

The three-dimensional operational deflection shapes were easily identified and measured using the VIC-3D™ HS Vibration Analysis System. Amplitudes as small as 40 nanometers were measured for frequencies up to approximately 2,000 Hz. Three unique shapes can easily be identified at 120, 932 and 2,087 Hz. The screen shot of the software below (left) shows a graph of the average out-of-plane amplitude A(w) as a function of frequency. The operational deflection shape at 932 Hz is animated below (right).




CSI公司提供的交钥匙系统,使用户能够在任何负载条件下快速准确地对任何物体表面的形貌、三维运动、变形和应变进行非常详细的测量。 全场3D数据可以图表、等高线图、动画和其他各种格式的形式提取,以便于FEA验证。

Correlated Solutions, Inc. provides turn-key systems that allow users to quickly and accurately make extremely detailed measurements of shape, 3D motion, deformation, and strain over the entire surface of any object under any load condition.  Full-field 3D data can be extracted in the form of graphs, contour plots, animations, and other various formats for easy FEA validation.

相关链接 Links


View the VIC-3D HS Vibration Analysis page for more information about this technology.

Download the VIC-3D HS Vibration Analysis flyer.

Please contact info@acqtec.com or visit our Contact Us page for your quotation today.



齿轮传动研究 Gear Testing Example

该用户正在评估塑料齿轮组件以更好地理解部件之间的相互作用。 除应变测量之外,还希望获得三维变形数据。

A plastic gear assembly was being evaluated to better understand interactions between component parts. In addition to strain measurements, it was desirable to obtain deflection data in three dimensions.


技术挑战 Challenges

gear1应变测量Strain measurement

装配在一起的齿轮工作时通常具有复杂的交互作用。 由于齿轮的转动,轮齿接触点在运行周期中会不断变化。 这意味着峰值应变的位置很难预测,而且它们通常不是定值。 零件的转动也导致与传统电测应变片保持连接变得不切实际。 即使工件处于静止且易于定位时,应变峰值也可能集中在非常小的区域或具有高应变梯度变化,而应变片产生的平均效应可能会造成峰值结果的损失。

Assembled components typically have complex interactions with one another. Contact points can vary during operational cycles due to part movement. This means that the locations of peak strains can be hard to predict, and they are often not stationary. The movement of parts can also make it impractical to maintain electrical connections with gauges. Even when they are stationary and easy to locate, the highest strains can be concentrated in very small areas or have high gradients. Peak values may be lost to the averaging effect produced by gauges.



解决办法 Solution


CSI公司的VIC-3D提供了一种可用于齿轮整个轮廓上进行应变测量的方法。 因为它提供了全场测量,所以没有必要选择特定的点进行测量, 这样可以在运行周期的各个阶段清楚地显示和精确测量峰值应变。 VIC-3D同时提供了三维位移的测量数据。 该功能使我们的客户能够识别和量化负载下轮齿的扭转变形。

Correlated Solutions’ VIC-3D provided a means for making strain measurements across the entire profile of the gear tooth. Because it provides full-field measurements, it was not necessary to choose a particular point at which measurements would be made. This allowed the peak strains to be clearly visualized and accurately measured at various stages of the operational cycle. VIC-3D also measured displacement in three dimensions. This feature allowed our customer to recognize and quantify twisting of the gear tooth under load.




View the VIC-3D system for more information about this technology.